Monday, May 29, 2017

Costume and Embroidery of Zakarpattia, Ukraine, part 2; the Center

Hello all, 
Today I am continuing with my series on Zakarpattia. Again, I encourage you to follow along in Google maps as I mention locations.

These two zones lie in the middle of the map above. They share the same unusual cut of the chemise, and indeed are distinguished most by their embroidery.

Irshava zone

This lies south of the Volovets' zone, from Mukachevo east to the ridge between the Borzhava and the Rika rivers. It includes the Borzhava and possibly the Latoritsa river valleys, except for the uppermost reaches. This and the next zone are often considered to be the 'typical' Transcarpathian costume. This is the fifth type of Ukrainian costume, the single apron type. An apron is worn directly over the chemise, and there is no skirt. The front of the chemise is gathered at the neck, there is a small area of embroidery or applique there, and the opening is in the back. The sleeve pieces are cut full length, up to the collar. This type of chemise is called Dowhana. 

Here is a couple in summer attire from the village of Dovhe. The man's outfit is unusual for Ukraine, but is similar to that of other parts of the Pannonian plain, in Slovakia, northwest Romania, Hungary, and eastern Croatia.

Here is a woman from near Irshava. This photo was sent in by one of my readers, Jenna Herskovic. She says that this is her grandmother from the village of Pryborzhavske.

Here is a woman from the village of Kerets'ky, Notice that she is wearing a very large apron, which seems to be more typical of the Khust zone.

This chemise is from the village of Bereznyky.

Here is an old photo of a group of girls in this costume.

The type and arrangement of the embroidery is unique to this area. The front has an inset of fancy woven cloth, with red woven ornament at the neck, and generally a zigzag twill pattern in the white part, which, as you can see, is often whiter than the plain linen used in the rest of the garment.

The opening, as i mentioned, is in the back.

The sleeves are full length and gathered into the collarband. There is a band of embroidery across the sleeve at about shoulder height, which has a diamond of embroidery just below it in the center of the sleeve. It may have a narrow vertical line of embroidery above this band.

There is a seam at the back of the sleeve, which is joined with ornamental needlework. Just to the outside of this seam is a chain of diamonds forming a line down the rear of the sleeve.

 This image is from the book 'Ukrajins'ka Vyshywka', by Tetiana Kara-Vasyljevych, who, unusually, mistakenly assigns it to Rivne Oblast. 

You can see that the embroidery is mostly flat stitching, with some cross stitch on the collar nd cuffs. The cuffs are narrow bands, and the sleeves are gathered into them.  

Moccasins, postoly, were commonly worn here, as in most of Zakarpattia. Those who could afford boots wore them for special occasions. This pair is from the village of Dovhe.

Short, highly embroidered sheepskin vests were worn here as well. This one is from the village of Kerets'ky.

Here are a few more images of this costume.

 I am not sure that the vest in this image is correct. I believe that it comes from a region further east, namely the Teresva river valley.

And here are some images from a fashion show which depicted this and other Transcarpathian costumes.


 Khust zone

This consists of the region between Khust and Bustyno, north of the Tisa river, and includes the lower and mid Rika river valley and the Tereblya river valley up to the northern border of Transcarpathia. The people in the northern part of this region are Boiko, but the costume is substantially the same..
 Here is the cut of the chemise from this region. The dress chemise is exceptionally full. This particular one is from the village of Danylove, in the southern part.

As in the Irshava region, the opening is in back, but here there is embroidery done over the smocking in front. The apron, plat, especially for dress occasions, is extremely full and wraps most of the way around the body. The waistband is wide and has strings on the ends which wrap around the body more than once. No skirt is worn.

 Here is a photo of a girl from Danylove. You can see the decorative stitching done on the waistband.

The cuff is generally ruffled, with a gathered portion slightly above. The embroidery above is done in bargello or brick stitch. The composition and techniques of the embroidery used in this zone is remarkable for its variety. One common arrangement is a large rectangle, as seen here. The following is also from Danylove. This is done mostly in a single color with a heavy wool yarn, the so called curly stitch.

Here are some embroidery examples from the northern part, namely the village of Synevyr, which is in the Boiko area.
They also use the rectangle as a form for the embroidery.

They use Nyzynka embroidery in one color, seen both above here and below, from the front and the back.

Another arrangement is two horizontal bands joined by a vertical band in the center of the sleeve.
These three are also from Synevyr. Some use darning stitch, nyz, and some use cross stitch.

The embroidery may also be very colorful, as in this next example from Synevyr, seen from the rear.

An additional example of embroidery arrangement is having two horizontal bands with no connection, as in this example from Sokyrnytsia.

And the final example is a large diamond in the center of the sleeve. This tends to be more common further north, especially closer to Mizhhiria. Here is another example, also from Sokyrnytsia.

And two more examples from Sokyrnytsia. It seems that these different compositions coexisted within the same village.

Some chemises show somewhat of a hybridization of the horizontal band and the diamond, as in this example.

The above example includes cutwork, as does this similar example, which also includes cross stitch and stem stitch.

Some examples can be very colorful.

Here is a woman from an unspecified location wearing her everyday shirt with a simple diamond while embroidering a sleeve for a dress shirt that has more extensive embroidery.

The hair dressing and headpieces can be very complex. Here are some examples from the village of Iza. Two brides. [note that in eastern Europe, one is a 'bride' for up to a few years]. The open topped crown, parta, has a part which sticks up on one side, and is decorated with ribbons, feathers, artificial flowers, blown glass balls, and other items. Note also the bodice with little 'epaulettes'.

Here is a married woman from Iza in her dress outfit. Her vest is of embroidered sheepskin.

A young mother from Iza.

A colorful chemise from Iza.

Young girls from Kosheliovo.

 A beautiful chemise from Bushtyno.

A simpler outfit from Dubove.

A chemise from Dulovo.

An example from Horinchovo, showing the three dimensional curly stitch.

Two girls from Nyzhnje Selyshche.

A man from Zolotareve, wearing the jacket called uyosh.

A woman with an embroidered sheepskin vest from Steblivka, along with an everyday photo.

Two girls with fancy hair and parta from Vonyhove. Note the 'prairie points' on the vest.

Here is a girl from Lypets'ka Polyana.

A series of pictures from the village of Kolochava, in the north. This would be in the Boiko zone.

 A couple of girls wearing parta. Note the decorative seam in the center of the aprons.

A couple of married women. The hemline varies with the decade.

Here are just a few shots from a wedding somewhere near Synevyr in the 1930's. These are taken from the historical video at the end of the article.

The Starosta and Starostynia are leading the procession. She is wearing the shaggy jacket for which Zakarpattia is famous.

This would be the bride. Note the headdress. Her embroidery is in a rectangle.

 This would be the maid of honor, note that her embroidery is in a diamond.

The bride and other young women wear vests and aprons of colorful flower print material.

 An older married woman wears a vest and apron of solid dark colored cloth which is not as full.

A video from Zakarpattia made in the 1930's, narrated in Czech.

A 'fashion show' of some of the folk costumes of Zakarpattia.

Thank you for reading, I hope that you have found this to be interesting and informative.
This information is far from exhaustive. 

Roman K.


Source material:

S. Makovski, 'L'Art Populaire en Russie Subcarpathique', Prague, 1926
Roman Pylyp, 'Khudozhnia Vyshywka Ukrajintsiw Zakarpattia', Uzhhorod, 2012
Sofia Hubash, 'Volovechchyna Moja', Uzhhorod, 2011
Myroslava Kot, 'Ukrajins'ka Vyshyta Sorochka', Drohobych, 2007
R. V. Zakharchuk-Chuhaj' 'Ukrajins'ka Narodna Vyshywka Zakhidni Oblasti URSR', Kyjiv, 1988
Iryna Hurhula, 'Narodne Mystetsvo Zakhidnykh Oblastej Ukrajiny', Kyjiv, 1966
K I Matejko, 'Ukrajins'kyj Narodnyj Odjah', Kyjiv, 1977
Tetiana Kara-Vasylieva, 'Ukrajins'ka Vyshywka',  Kyjiv, 1993
O. I. Kubajevych et al, 'Derzhawnyj Muzej Etnohrafiji ta Khudozhn'oho Promyslu AN URSR', Kyjiv, 1976
Robert Papik'ian, "Zacharovanyj Kraj', Kyjiv, 1988
Oksana Kosmina, 'Tradytsijne Vbrannia Ukrajintsiw', Kyjiv, 2001
Petro Odarchenko et al, 'Ukrainian Folk Costumes', Toronto-New York, 1992
M. S. Bilan et al, 'Ukrajins'kyj Stryj', L'viw, 2000
Tamara Nikolajeva, 'Ukrajins'kyj Kostium, Nadija na Renensans', Kyjiw, 2005
V. H. Bilozub et al, 'Ukrajins'ke Narodne Mystetstvo - Tkanyny ta Vyshywky', Kyjiw, 1960
V. H. Bilozub et al, 'Ukrajins'ke Narodne Mystetsvo -  Vbrannia', Kyjiw, 1961

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