Today I am speaking about the costume tradition of northeast Navarre. If you look at the map above, this costume covers the three river valleys in the easternmost part of Navarre, which are, from west to east, Aezcoa - Aezkoa, Salazar - Zaraitzu, and Roncal - Erronkari. This area is currently linguistically mixed, with most people speaking Castillian, and about 5 % still speaking Basque. These three valleys are more clearly seen in the following physical map of Navarre.
These three costume traditions are similar, but not identical.
Aezcoa - Aezkoa
The bodice, justillo or korputx, has a distinctive notch in front similar to the costume of Fana in Norway or Spisz in Slovakia. This notch is not found in the costumes of the neighboring valleys. The front edge is ornamented with a colored ribbon. My sources speak of it being laced, but in the photos which I have found it seems to be hooked closed.
In older photographs, this ribbon is of a plain color with embroidery and sequins sewn onto it. In more recent photographs it is more common to see the use of brocaded cloth.
Unmarried girls wear the bodice by itself. Married women wear a jacket over the bodice, which is identical except that it has sleeves and does not close all the way, but is laced shut so that the bodice is still visible in the opening. This garment is called jubon or korputx mangua. [I wonder what unmarried girls do when it's cold?]
Over the long camisa, or underskirt with a short camisa, a petticoat of linen is worn. Over this are worn two wool skirts which are blue or violet. The top skirt is normally worn pinned up around the waist, showing a wide red facing sewn inside the hem which is called aldar. It is held in place by a pin or brooch called amabitxi.
The hair is normally worn in a long braid, with a ribbon tied at the top, called zintamuxko. Bead necklaces are worn, and spectacular earrings, with a matching pendant which is attached to a velvet ribbon around the neck, called bitxi.
For formal occasions, a small cape called mantilla is worn over the head. This is mandatory for church attendance. It is shaped to cover the head and leave a view just to the front. It is edged with a wide band of fancy material, edged with trim. There is a small tassel in the center of the head opening; this was to facilitate the centering of the mantilla in a time when household mirrors were rare. There are two small pieces attached to the corners which are used to hold the mantilla on the head. Today the mantilla is normally red. According to my sources, the topskirt is let down when attending church. This custom, while logical, is apparently no longer followed.
Similar head coverings are used in other parts of Spain, and parts of southwestern Sardinia.
While the mantillas used in the 20th cent are red, there is evidence that they used to be made in all four of the Liturgical colors of the Roman Catholic Church, which were worn for the appropriate feast days.
Widows and women 'of a certain age' wear essentially the same outfit, except that the skirt is not pinned back, and the outer garments are all black.
This of course is a description of the dress clothing. Everyday and work clothes were of course simpler.
Single men wore black shoes, white stockings, linen underpants, black knickers, a white linen shirt with full sleeves, a colorful brocade vest and wide purple sash. Over this may be worn a white double-breasted wool jacket with black trim and possibly topstitching. Also a round black hat with chinstrap is worn either on the head or hanging on the back. When the jacket is worn, the vest might be plain black or gray.
Upon his betrothal, a man changes the white jacket for a red or burgundy one.
I will end with a few more pictures of this costume.
Francisco Arraras Soto, 'Navarra - Temas de Cultura Popular; Indumentaria Valles de Roncal, Salazar y Aezcoa', Pamplona, 1991
Jose Ortiz Echague, 'Espana, Tipos y Trajes', Madrid, 1953
Isabel de Palencia, 'Regional Costumes of Spain', Madrid, 1926
Manuel Comba, 'Trajes Regionales Espanoles', Madrid, 1977
Cesar Justel, 'Espana, Trajes Regionales', Madrid, 1997
Lilla Fox, 'Folk Costumes of Southern Europe', Boston, 1972