Today i want to talk a bit about how the embroidery i mentioned in the previous posting fits into the folk costume of Kaluga Province of Russia. There are four basic types of old Russian costume: Sarafan, Paniova [Poneva], Andarak and Kubeliek. The Kubeliek is very rare, and the Andarak, which resembles some north Ukrainian and Lithuanian costume is uncommon. By far the most widespread costumes are the Sarafan and the Paniova. If you are confused by the alternate spellings, in Russian the word is spelled Poneva but is pronounced Paniova. This is a continual problem for people who need to transcribe words between alphabets, do you transcribe letter by letter, or do you write it as it is actually pronounced? People choose both options. [I hope I need not remind English speakers that their language is one of the worst offenders for pronounciation not following spelling.]
There is actually a fifth costume that one will see presented, what is often called the 'Quadrille Costume'. Which is more of a period costume from the 19th cent.
The sarafan is typical of North Russia, while the paniova is typical of South Russia. The dividing latitude is roughly even with Moscow. However, the sarafan is the newer of the two and has made some inroads into South Russia in recent centuries. South Russia has the older ethnic Russian population. Kaluga Province is shown on this map in light pink. The light green is the area that is politically recognised as ethnic Russian.The black spot in the middle is the city of Moscow.
S. Y. Gumilevskaya, 'Vyshyvka Khudozhnik M. N. Gumilevskaya' [Embroidery of the Artist M. N. Gumilevskaya], Moscow, 2005
L. Molotova, 'Russian Folk Clothing', Leningrad, 1984
M. Mertsalova, 'Poezia Narodnavo Kostiuma' [The Poetry of Folk Costume], Moscow, 1988
Max Tilke, 'The Costumes of Eastern Europe', London, 1926