The stippled areas in the south are those in which the Goral population lost, at least in part, their Polish ethnic identity, coming to consider themselves Slovak Gorali.
The costumes of the various groups are distinct, but have a lot in common. The women's outfits show much similarity in their variety. It is often easier to identify the origin of people by looking at the mens' costumes, in particular the ornament on the pants. The mens' pants are always of very heavy naturally 'white' wool, which is actually more of a cream color. The ornamentation on the pants, especially of the parzenica, the front opening, is distinct from one group to another. I will proceed west to east.
Górale śląscy - Silesian Gorals
These people are represented by the orange area at the left of the map, being found south of Cieszyn on both the Polish and Moravian sides.
The women generally wear no bodice, and a short shirt over a long chemise. The apron and skirt are both traditionally indigo-batik prints. The men wear simple pants with only one front opening, which is edged with braid. The vests are red, or occasionally black for older men. Both men and women have negative space cross stitch embroidery on the shirt, usually in a chestnut and black for the men and red or maroon for the women. The woman on the right here is wearing completely non traditional embroidery.
Górale czadeccy - Chadets Gorals
These people live to the south of the Silesian Gorals, across the border in Slovakia, in the Kisuca valley. It is likely that they were of the same origin as the Silesian Gorals, but have been influenced by Slovak culture and costume. This is especially evident in the colorful embroidery.
The pants are again very plain, with two flaps falling over where the openings would be. These sometimes have floral embroidery. Both mens' and womens' shirts have colorful embroidery.
Górale żywieccy - Zywiec Gorals
The women wear a malopolska style bodice, called gorsetka. It is in various colors with a floral stem or group embroidered on the front and back, lappets, either round or squared off, and is laced with a red ribbon. They wear an apron, usually of white cutwork. The men wear either red vests with blue pompoms, or blue vests with red pompoms. the pants may have one or two openings in front, with relatively modest embroidery around the opening, and also some on the lower legs just above where the socks cover the lower part.
Górale Orawce - Orawa Gorals
These people are represented by light red on the map above. They live on both sides of the border, the Polish side being to the east of the Slovak side. This forms the northernmost part of the former Árva County of the Hungarian Empire.
The women wear a bodice which is closed up the front and has a peplum rather than lappets. It is made of material which usally contrasts with that of the skirt, and may be quite dark. Generally an apron is not worn. The men have two openings on their pants which are ornamented with black braid, sometimes with a combination of heavy and fine braid. They generally wear black vests, and sometimes long brown wool embroidered jackets.
Górale babiogórscy - Gorals of Babia Góra
These people are represented by lavender in the center of the map above. They live to the north of Babia Góra, or Witches Mountain, on the Slovak Polish border.
The women wear a gorsetka with lappets and floral embroidery. The skirt is often indigo batik printed. The apron is of white cutwork. The men may wear a black vest but often omit it. The pants have two openings, which are ornamented with red and blue braid or chainstitch. The heavy brown jacket is often worn here as well.
Górale Kliszczacy - Klishchatsy Gorals
These people are represented by orange in the upper center of the map above.The live east of the Babiogorcy and north of the Podhalany. The mens' pants seem to be modestly ornamented, and the costume in general seems to be under pressure from the Podhale costume, which is much better known and is quite impressive. I know little about this group.
This is by far the best known group. The images at the head of the article are of Podhale costumes. They are shown on the map in khakhi green. They live mostly in Poland, in the High Tatras, the main town being Nowy Targ, but also inhabit a small corner of Slovakia called Sucha Gora [Suchá Hora].
Górale zagórzańscy - Transmontane Gorals
This group is represented in pink on the map above, just north of the Podhale region.
They live east of the Kliszczacy, and south of the lowland groups known as Lachy.
The mens' pants have two openings and are embroidered, but not as heavily or in the same style as in Podhale. The ornamentation often features a heart motif at the bottom.
The womens' costume is very similar to that of Podhale.
Górale sądeccy - Sącz Gorals
This group is also shown in orange on the map above, to the right. They live to the east of the Zagorzanie, and northeast of the Podhalane. You can see that they form two separate enclaves, which are sometimes divided into two groups: the Górale Łąccy or White Gorals in the west, and the Górale piwniczańscy, also called górale nadpopradzcy, or Black Gorals in the east. The general name indicates that they live south of the region of Sącz.
This is the group which lives south of Sącz and north of the Szczawnica region. The men wear white pants which have two openings, and extensive embroidery on the front, sides, and lower leg, in a very different style from that of Podhale, and more closely resembles the embroidery of Sącz. The men wear a vest which is dark blue, and highly ornamented in a unique style. The women wear an embroidered gorset and floral print skirt, similar to that of Podhale.
Górale nadpopradzcyThis group lives on the Polish Slovak border surrounded on the west, east, and south by Lemko / Rusyns. They live in a small area of Slovakia next to the border as well. To the north lie the Lachy of Sącz and the Pogorzanie. They have the name of black Gorals because unlike all other Gorals, the men wear black or dark brown wool pants. The women wear indigo batik printed skirts, white aprons and gorsets trimmed with ribbon.
Górale Pienińscy or Szczawnickimi - Pieniny or Szczawnica Gorals.
This group is represented by blue to the right of the map above. They also live over the border in Slovakia to some extent. This costume is also used by boatmen on the Dunajec river who take tourists on excursions on both sides of the border. Often only the vest is worn. The Szlachtowa Lemkos wore essentially the same costume. The men wear a blue vest with extensive floral embroidery. The pants have one opening and also have extensive floral embroidery. The women originally wore indigo batik printed aprons, and red striped skirts. The bodices were of a solid color with geometric embroidery. Today the women often wear something closer to the Podhale costume. In the Rusyn village of Veľký Lipník in Slovakia across the border, the women wear the same costume but the men do not. Likewise in some Slovak villages further west, men wear this same costume but the women do not. I have previously written a more in depth article on this costume.
Today the men have retained this costume, but the women have generally abandoned it in favor of something much closer to the Podhale costume. What a shame.
Górale spiscy - Spiš Gorals
This group is shown in dark red in the lower right of the map above. A small part of this region is in Poland, and a larger part in Slovakia. There are two Goral costumes in the Polish part of this region and several in the Slovak. Spiš itself extends further to the south and includes a significant part of Slovak territory. There were also once German colonies in this area.I also covered this area in my articles on the Pieniny region.
Gorals from Kacwin and Trybsz areas.
The men wear a green vest with tassels and distinct embroidery. The pants have two openings and are ornamented with braid in a unique style. The women's costume resembles the old Szczawnica costume.
Gorals from Jurgów
The men have pants with two openings, which are embroidered with floral designs. The women wear bodices with points in front and back, which is very common further south in Spisz. The women's shirt had either woven red stripes as in Szczawnica, or black embroidery on the sleeves.
The Gorals in Slovak Spisz I will leave for another time, because they will take more research. Now when you meet a Góral you will be able to tell which region he comes from, and you will have a good excuse for staring at his pants.
Thank you for reading. I hope that you have found this to be interesting and informative.
This material was gathered from so many sources that I cannot list them,
but here is one very comprehensive and interesting website on Polish costumes and embroidery.