Monday, May 30, 2016

Ukrainian and Romanian embroidery of Bukovyna-Bucovina






Hello all, 
I recently received a request as to how to tell the difference between Ukrainian Bukovyna embroidery and Romanian Bucovina embroidery. There is no straightforward answer. In the local communities, the people know which village is inhabited by which ethnicity, and they could tell you, but there are no overarching rules which always apply. Nevertheless, there are regional differences, and some of these regions are overwhelmingly of one nationality or the other, only the central region being mixed. Kolbenheier was an Austrian who traveled in Bukovyna before the fall of the empire, and recorded some designs from various regions. He made a notation of the ethnicity of each local community. I have the reprint which was done in the 1970's by the Ukrainian Women's Association of Canada, which omitted that information. Nonetheless, I will sort his prints here for you by region. There is a notable difference in style, and some can be difinitively attributed to one nation or the other. Above you see a map which shows the ethnic composition and distribution of Bukovyna under the Austrians. Ukrainians are shown in black, Romanians in white, and other ethnicities in various cross hatching. The present border crosses this region from west to east at about the center. 
Here is a modern map of the same area.


I personally divide Bukovyna-Bucovina into four zones, each of which has a recognizable embroidery style. 

I. Western zone. 
This is inhabited by Hutsuls, who are Ukrainian. This consists of the counties of Vyzhnytsia, and the western parts of Radiwtsi and Câmpulung Moldovenesc counties. These are not really Bukovynian, but belong to the Hutsul ethnic group. Their embroidery has been influenced by that of Bukovyna, however. They sometimes have the stripes down the lower sleeve, but often do not have the contrasting band across the center. These are depicted on Kolbenheier plates 62-74












Some of the designs in these last two look more Romanian.
I have provided the contemporary Romanian names of these municipalities.

Cârlibaba


 Moldoviţa


II, Southern zone
This is almost completely inhabited by Romanians. A surprising number of these are executed in just red and black. This consists of the remainder of Câmpulung Moldovenesc county, as well as the counties of Humora and Suceava. These are shown on Kolbenheier plates 1-24. I will put the contemporary Romanian names of the communities before the plates.

Dorna Candrenilor

The designs on this first one are very striking and unique.


 Vatra Dornei


The two top designs on this plate could be Austrian in origin.


Iacobeni


Fundu Moldovei

Again, the top right design could be Austrian in origin.


Vama

Here the bottom left design is Hutsul.


Stulpicani


Gemenea


Capu Codrului 


Băişeşti
 Măzănăești


 Berchişeşti


 Drăgoieşti


 Corlata


Stupca

The name of this village has been changed to Ciprian Porumbescu


Zahareşti


 Bosanci


 Udeşti


 Şcheia


 Stroiești


 Bălăceana


Comăneşti


Pârteştii de Sus and Pârteştii de Jos


Botoşana


III. Northern zone
This is overwhelmingly inhabited by Ukrainians. 
The embroidery style is dominated by large motifs, some of them rather bizarre, resembling nothing else in the area, but having some Balkan elements; asymmetry, outlines with hooks, etc. This zone consists of the counties of Vashkiwtsi, Zastawna and Kitsman. They are represented by Kolbenheier plates 45-61.

Malyi Kuchuriv Малий Кучурів


Pohorilivka Погорілівка


 Vikno Вікно


Chornyi Potik Чорний Потік [Black Creek]


Onut Онут


Samushyn Самушин


Mosorivka Мосорівка


Mytkiv Митків


Bridok Брідок


 Doroshivtsi Дорошівці


 Tovtry Товтри


Kadubivtsi Кадубівці


Borivtsi Борівці - Kyseliv Киселів


 Stavchany Ставчани


Shypyntsi Шипинці


 Karapchiv Карапчів


Stara Zhadova Стара Жадова and Nova Zhadova Нова Жадова


IV Central zone
This area is ethnically mixed. The embroidery is characterized by smaller motifs. The differences in this zone between Ukrainian embroidery and Romanian embroidery are small. I will attempt to identify communities. This consists of the counties of Seret - Сере́т - Siret, Radivtsi - Радівці Rădăuţi, Storozhynets' - Сторожинець - Storojineţand Chernivtsi - Чернівці́ - Cernăuți. This is covered by Kolbenheier plates 25-44.

Şerbăuţi Шербівці and Calafindeşti Калинівці

These two villages are currently on the Romanian side of the border. In 2002, the census data showed that Şerbăuţi Шербівці was 84% Romanian and 15% Ukrainian, while Calafindeşti Калинівці was 94% Romanian and 5% Ukrainian. In the 1930 census Ukrainians formed 16.8% of the district population, with most of the rest being Romanian.


Milişăuţi Мілішівці

This municipality is also currently on the Romanian side of the border. The 1930 census showed the population at 82% Romanian, 8.8% Ukrainian, 6.5% German, 1.6% Jewish, and 1.1% Russian. In the 2002 census, over 99% of the population identified themselves as Romanian.


Horodnic de Jos

Despite having an obviously Slavic name, this municipality seems to be almost completely Romanian. It is currently on the Romanian side of the border.



Horodnic de Sus

This community is also currently on the Romanian side of the border. The population is overwhelmingly Romanian, with some Roma and formerly some Germans.


Frătăuţii Vechi

This community is currently on the Romanian side of the border. It is 100% Romanian.


Bilca 

This is currently on the Romanian side of the Border and is overwhelmingly Romanian.


Straja

This community is currently on the Romanian side of the border and is overwhelmingly Romanian.


Crasna - Krasnoil's'k Красноїльськ

This municipality is on the Ukrainian side of the border, and despite having a name of obviously Slavic origin, is overwhelmingly Romanian.



Kam'yanka Кам'янка  In Romanian Camenca or modern - Petriceni

This is near Siret - Seret, it is currently on the Ukrainian side of the border. The population is 92% Ukrainian and 8% Romanian.


Sinăuţii de Sus - Nyzhni Synivtsi Нижні Синівці
This municipality is currently on the Ukrainian side of the border. It is inhabited by Romanians.


Tereblecea - Terebleche Тереблече  

This municipality is currently on the Ukrainian side of the border. It is 62% Romanian and 34% Ukrainian.


Carapciu Karapchiv Карапчів and Prisăcăreni Prosokyryany Просокиряни

This municipality is currently on the Ukrainian side of the border. It is 91% Romanian and 8% Ukrainian.

Velykyi Kuchuriv Великий Кучурів - Cuciurul Mare and Voloca pe Derelui - Voloka Волока

These neighboring towns are currently on the Ukrainian side of the border. Velykyi Kuchuriv is overwhelmingly Ukrainian, and Voloka overwhelmingly Romanian.


Bobivtsi Бобівці - Bobeşti 

This municipality is currently on the Ukrainian side of the border and is overwhelmingly Ukrainian.

Novoselytsya Новоселиця - Noua Suliță

This municipality is found on the Ukrainian side of the border, It is 55% Ukrainian and 34% Romanian.


 Boian - Boyany Бояни

This municipality is on the Ukrainian side of the border. It is 92% Romanian and 8% Ukrainian.


Mahala - Магала

This municipality is on the Ukrainian side of the border. The name is from Romany, but this municipality is 92% Romanian and 6% Ukrainian.


Horecha Гореча

I was unable to find this municipality on a map, but I did find it as a district within the current boundaries of the city of Chernivtsi Чернівці. I would take this to be Ukrainian.


The following two communities I was also unable to find on the map. The author indicates that they were in the county of Chernivtsi Чернівці. 




I hope that you have found this to be interesting and informative. 
There are some wonderful designs here. I would encourage you to take them and use them.
As to whether it is easy to tell the Ukrainian designs from the Romanian designs, I find myself still unable to formulate definitive rules.  I would want more samples from central Bukovyna. 

Roman K

rkozakand@aol.com

2 comments:

  1. Dear Roman, have you ever seen Plate 75 of the collection? The original had 75 plates, the Canadian reprint has only numbers 1-74. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  2. This area of Ukraine/Romania has a long history of habitation. Some of the embroidery elements show a striking resemblance to the ancient pottery designs found in Trypillian-Cucuteni artifacts. Just as these ancient cultures appear to be linked, one cannot easily say that Bukovinan embroidery, whether Romanian or Ukrainian is not also linked to its ancient and shared roots

    ReplyDelete