Stockings of woven cloth, vadmal, were popular in many places, and were used in Telemark in the mid 1800's. They were superceded for a while by knit stockings, which fit to the legs better, but now the older form is making somewhat of a comeback, as they are excellent for showing off the elaborate embroidery of Telemark.
Aagot Noss has done some impressive research into the folk costumes of Norway, especially Telemark, and has identified three cuts which were and are used to make these stockings. Type 2 has the toe cap knitted and sewn on.
This type of stocking absolutely requires the use of garters to stay up, which are tied around the leg above the calf. The flat field of cloth makes an excellent location for embroidery, however.
The embroidery is of the type called Rosesaum, and is done before the stockings are sewn together. Both the colors and the extent of the embroidery vary.
The stockings, when worn, look baggy to modern eyes, but the embroidery more than makes up for it. Here are some more images of this type of footwear. These are worn with both the Raudtroje and the Beltestakk costumes. The composition of the embroidery is usually similar.
This is part of an antique doll which was meticulously clad in the folk costume.
On the left is an old stocking, and on the right is a modern copy which varies somewhat from the original. I admit to liking the original better.
The shoes were made with cutwork in the leather, black over red, and various other ornaments.
Thank you for reading, I hope that you have found this interesting and inspiring.
Aagot Noss, 'Draktskikk i Aust-Telemark', Oslo, 2010
Kari-Anne Pedersen, 'Folkedrakt blir Bunad', Cappelen Damm, 2013
Bjorn Sverre hol Haugen, 'Norsk Bunadleksikon' Oslo, 2009
Kjersti Skavhaug et al, 'Norwegian Bunads', Oslo, 1991
Heidi Fossnes, 'Norges Bunader og Samiske Folkedrakter', Oslo, 1993
Ellen Scheel et al, 'Bunad-Brodering', Oslo, 1997
Janice Stewart, 'The Folk Arts of Norway', University of Wisconsin, 1953
Guvnor Traetteberg, 'Folk Costumes of Norway', Oslo, 1966, 1976
Thorbjorg Ugland, 'A Sampler of Norway's Folk Costumes', Oslo, 1996
Laila Duran, 'Scandinavian Folklore vol I - III', Sweden, 2011-2013